Slow, large-amplitude chain motions play an important role in determining the macroscopic mechanical properties of polymers. Although such motions have been studied quantitatively by two-dimensional (2D) nuclear: magnetic resonance (NMR) exchange experiments, overlapping anisotropic patterns hamper spectral analysis, and limit applications. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) has proven useful in resolving such problems for rapidly spinning samples by separating anisotropic spectral patterns according to isotropic chemical shifts. In a previous study [J. Am. Chem. Sec. 115, 4825 (1993)], we described a three-dimensional (3D) NMR experiment that incorporates; the VACSY method and a hop of the rotor axis to correlate the isotropic chemical shifts to 2D anisotropic exchange patterns. The hop of the rotor axis, however, presents experimental difficulties and limits the range of motional rates that may be studied. We present in this paper a new 3D VACSY exchange experiment that obtains the same correlations without the need for the rotor axis hop. A series of 2D exchange spectra are recorded with the sample spinning at different rotation axis angles.' Then using the scaling of the anisotropic frequency at the different angles, we construct the data onto a 3D matrix so that a Fourier transformation directly yields the desired correlations. The technique is applied to C-13 exchange NMR to study the slow molecular motion of ordered isotactic polypropylene.

%B Journal of Chemical Physics %V 101 %P 1852-1864 %8 Aug 1 %@ 0021-9606 %G English %UAlthough molecular motions are responsible for many of the macroscopic properties observed in solids, especially in polymers, methods for studying these processes in all but the simplest systems are scarce. In the present study we introduce a three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiment for characterizing ultraslow molecular motions in complex solid systems. The technique extracts dynamic information by resolving the two-dimensional exchange distributions that can be observed in spectra of static samples, according to the isotropic chemical shifts of individual molecular sites. These three-dimensional correlations are achieved by processing signals arising from a fast-spinning solid sample using two independent macroscopic axes of rotation as extraction parameters, an approach which becomes practical due to the simple scaling behavior of anisotropic chemical shifts with respect to the axis of sample rotation. The principles involved in this new spectroscopic technique are discussed, and the method is illustrated with an application to the analysis of motions in isotactic polypropylene.

%B Journal of the American Chemical Society %V 115 %P 4825-4829 %8 Jun 2 %@ 0002-7863 %G English %UWe describe a new solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique for correlating anisotropic and isotropic chemical shifts in powdered samples. Two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra are obtained by processing signals acquired in independent experiments for different angles between the sample spinning axis and the Zeeman magnetic field. This 2D NMR approach can therefore resolve individual static anisotropic lineshapes according to their isotropic chemical shift frequencies, without use of sudden mechanical motions or multiple-pulse irradiation schemes. Applications of the technique are illustrated with an analysis of the chemical shift anisotropy for the eight distinct C-13 sites in tyrosine.

%B Israel Journal of Chemistry %V 32 %P 161-164 %@ 0021-2148 %G English %UWe describe here a new solid-state nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) experiment for correlating anisotropic and isotropic chemical shifts of inequivalent nuclei in powdered samples. Spectra are obtained by processing signals arising from a spinning sample, acquired in independent experiments as a function of the angle between the axis of macroscopic rotation and the external magnetic field. This is in contrast to previously proposed techniques, which were based on sudden mechanical flippings or multiple-pulse sequences. We show that the time evolution of variable-angle-spinning signals is determined by a distribution relating the isotropic frequencies of the spins with their corresponding chemical shift anisotropies. Fourier transformation of these data therefore affords a two-dimensional NMR spectrum, in which line shapes of isotropic and anisotropic interactions are correlated. Theoretical and experimental considerations involved in the extraction of this spectral information are discussed, and the technique is illustrated by an analysis of C-13 NMR anisotropy in glycine, cysteine, and p-anisic acid.

%B Journal of Chemical Physics %V 97 %P 4800-4808 %8 Oct 1 %@ 0021-9606 %G English %U